Grunts and deep grunts each other add repeated issue. Since these repeated facets differed a lot more to your a couple grunt models, we named her or him in another way: ‘pulses’ having grunts, and you may ‘voice cycles’ to possess deep grunts. We made use of the program PRAAT 5.cuatro.01 () on the voice analyses.
We selected large-top quality grunts and you will strong grunts by the only and those who work in the new study away from voice features, which had a signal-to-looks ratio anastasiadate-bureaublad out-of dos or higher for the three pulses/voice schedules on highest amplitude. To do so, we compared the sound stress of your pulse/years into third high amplitude into voice tension away from around three at random chose factors on the background sounds contained in this 0.5 s up until the grunt or strong grunt. If for example the voice pressure of the pulse/period was at minimum two times as highest while the record audio, we analysed the latest properties of your own grunt otherwise deep grunt. To your study of your own qualities of one’s grunt systems, we thought four details: step one. quantity of pulses/schedules per sound, dos. lifetime of brand new voice, step 3. quantity of pulses/cycles per 2nd, cuatro. dominating regularity.
So you’re able to measure the amount of pulses/time periods for every sound, we noted all of the discernible pulse/duration regarding wave-form of each grunt in the zero crossing following the high peak on the heartbeat/years and you will mentioned new noted no crossings. To select the time of a sound, i mentioned the amount of time within marked no crossings of your own very first and past noticeable pulse/cylcle. So you can assess the amount of pulses/cycles per 2nd, i split up the amount of pulses/cycles by the duration of new sound. To find the dominating regularity, i examined the three loudest pulses within an audio for the regularity for the highest sound strain and you can grabbed the average of them around three wavelengths.
Towards study of voice features having ticks and plops, we only made use of musical in which we can obviously choose new sound-generating fish. We explained clicks and you may plops using a few details: 1. Dominating volume, 2. voice strain difference in down and higher wavelengths.
To select the dominating frequency of voice, we investigated the benefit spectral range of the brand new simply click or plop having new frequency into highest sound stress. I derived the power range throughout the no crossing of waveform between your high and lowest amplitude. So you’re able to assess the new voice pressure level differences, i substracted the fresh sound pressure level of the fifth harmonic away from brand new voice pressure of your own prominent frequency.
Testing off voice characteristics
To your contrasting out of voice characteristics, we first averaged the data to possess male audio to the personal top. We were not able to do this for females, as there is actually no chance from many times distinguishing private lady inside the the brand new films reliably.
To possess presses and plops, i earliest checked out for sex-certain variations of the analysed features
I compared this new principal volume and you will cycle anywhere between men grunts and deep grunts to choose differences between the two label sizes. We after that tested getting differences between the fresh each other version of single-heart circulation musical.
For statistical analyses, we first investigated the properties of the tested sounds for normality using Shapiro-Wilk tests. If data were normally distributed according to Shapiro–Wilk test (P > 0.05), we used t-tests to examine the differences in sound properties. If the Shapiro–Wilk test showed a significant deviation from a normal distribution (P < 0.05), we log-transformed the data to achieve normality, or used Mann–Whitney U tests where a normal distribution could not be achieved by data transformation. For the statistical analysis of sounds we used R (Version 3.3.1, We assumed a difference between sound properties to be significant if the P-value of the respective test was < 0.05.